Dictionary

anchor

In a wristwatch movement, the anchor creates the connection between the wheel train and balance wheel. It is a small two-armed lever in the shape of a ship's anchor.

escape wheel

Together with the anchor, the escape wheel forms the escapement. It is the last wheel in a watch's gear train.

Antimagnetic watch

Actually, one would have to speak of a watch that is difficult to magnetize. Due to the metal alloys commonly used today, a watch is protected against the influence of magnetic fields (e.g. electronic devices).

bracelet

A variety of bracelets are available for wristwatches. The width of the bracelet depends on the width of the watch's lugs (e.g. 20 mm). Leather bracelets, Milanese bracelets, nylon bracelets (Nato bracelets), solid bracelets (steel bracelets) or silicone bracelets are available as desired.

wrist alarm clock

This is a watch with an additional built-in alarm device. The wrist alarm clock is available for both quartz watches and mechanical watches.

winding stem

It is a shaft with the crown attached to the outer end. It establishes the connection to the clockwork. This can be used to operate various functions such as winding, setting the hands, date display, etc.

automatic watch

Also called automatic for short. These mechanical watches wind themselves by movement. Here, for example, a centrifugal mass (rotor) is set in rotation. A changing device ensures that the elevator gear always rotates in the same direction and tensions the mainspring. The clock "winds up". A slipping clutch ensures that the tension spring does not overstretch. If the watch is not moved, the watch will stop after the elevator has finished.

lugs

These are the forked ends on a wristwatch. Usually they are connected with a spring-loaded cotter pin. This is held in small holes in the lugs. The leather or metal bracelets are attached to the splint. The distance between the lugs determines the bandwidth, eg 18 mm, 20 mm or 22 mm.

Battery powered watch

The battery-powered wristwatch has been around since around 1959. Since then, the miniaturization of electronics has made significant progress. Thus, the economical production of fully electronic clocks with high accuracy has become possible. The development of new electrochemical systems led to a wide range of watch batteries. These are available today for a wide variety of clock systems. The batteries usually drive a "synthetic quartz".

big date

These are watches with a large date display.

bluing

Steel hands or screws are blue tempered for decorative purposes and to protect against oxidation.

bronze (case)

Bronze is an alloy of copper and other metals (usually zinc). Bronze cases get a so-called patina. This is an aging effect caused by moisture or heat and is intended to protect against further corrosion.

cabochons

A cabochon is a round cut decorative stone that is sometimes used to finish off a winding crown or push-piece.

caliber

A term used in watchmaking for a specific movement, eg ETA, Cal. 2412.

Chronograph

This designation comes from the Greek terms "chronos" for "time" and "graphΓ΄" for "I write". Today it is understood as a wristwatch with a stopwatch function, with the help of which the duration of a process can be measured.

chronometer

Chronometers are particularly accurate watches (precision meters) whose accuracy is certified by a chronometer testing institute (e.g. ISO standard 3159).

ladies watch

Women's watches differ from men's watches mostly in the size of the case. They are often smaller than men's watches. As far as technology is concerned, you can find all kinds of movements analogous to men's watches today. Women's watches are also subject to more frequent fashion trends. They often serve as a piece of jewelery in terms of material, design, trimmings and equipment.

date display

The date display is the display of the date, day of the week, month and year on a watch face. In the case of mechanical watches, driver disks switch on. The day of the week or the date is shown in a section of the dial.

sealing ring

A water-resistant watch is fitted with at least one sealing ring on the case cover, the glass or the crown.

digital clock

With digital clocks, the time is displayed using numbers instead of the classic hands. Today mostly by light-emitting diodes or liquid crystals.

Double sided clock

These are watches that each have a dial on the front and back.

compressive strength

The pressure resistance of a waterproof watch according to DIN describes the load up to which pressure a watch can withstand. This is of particular importance for diving watches.

pusher

Pushers are attached to the case of a watch and are used to operate additional functions. On chronographs, pushers are usually attached on either side of the crown.

stainless steel (housing)

Most watches today are made of stainless steel. Stainless steel can be an alloy of nickel and chromium or molybdenum and tungsten with steel. The advantage is that they are corrosion-resistant and can be ground and polished.

anti-reflective coating

It is used in watch glasses to avoid reflections of the incident light. By thinly coating the glass, a splitting of the light is achieved; the anti-reflective effect occurs. Optimum anti-reflective effects are achieved through multiple coatings.

Endless calendar

Complicated additional device for mechanical watches to display the date, day of the week, month, year and moon phase, taking leap years into account. Due to the manufacturing effort, these are particularly expensive watches.

fine adjustment

A working method for the particularly precise regulation of the watch, but also the device of a watch for fine-tuning the rate deviation.

pilot watch

These are wristwatches that were developed for aviation in the 1930s. They are characterized by mechanical works. They are also easy to read, even in the dark (illuminating digits). They are usually equipped with a tachymeter, pilot's bezel, stop time measurement and slide rule bezel.

radio clock

This is a quartz watch that is radio controlled. A decoder establishes the connection between the quartz movement and the receiver. The radio connection is via long wave.

power reserve

This is the time that elapses between the time a watch is fully wound and the mainspring is completely relaxed. There are various watches that display this power reserve.

Rate accuracy / rate deviation

No clock is completely accurate. The accuracy describes the deviation from a certain standard. Quartz watches are more accurate than mechanical watches. Here is the accuracy of +/- 30 seconds a day. The "atomic clock" has the highest accuracy.

Housing

The case is the protective and decorative covering of the movement. According to the manufacturer, the shape and the decor are made or manufactured by case makers.

glasses

There are different types of glasses for wristwatches, eg plastic glasses. These are difficult to break, inexpensive but sensitive to scratches. Mineral glasses/crystal glasses, on the other hand, are scratch-resistant but very sensitive to breakage. Today, sapphire crystals are increasingly being used in high-quality watches. Sapphire glass is extremely scratch-resistant and impact-resistant.

GMT

Greenwich Mean Time. The prime meridian runs through the city of Greenwich. It is thus the astronomically defined local time that was set as world time. The earth has 24 time zones. Using the example of Sydney, this means GMT+8.

manual winding

Hand winding is a manual form of winding a watch. The watch spring is tensioned by means of the winding crown. A power reserve of approx. 40 hours is achieved here.

inhibition

Is the sub-mechanism of a mechanical clockwork that periodically prevents the uncontrolled running of the gear train under tension. This results in an even gait. The "Swiss lever escapement" is often used for wristwatches.

sub-dial

It's a small, additional dial on the main dial. It is used to display other functions such as minutes and seconds. Typical representations of additional information can be found on chronographs.

hydro clock

These are quartz watches that are filled with a suitable liquid, for example silicone oil. These watches are suitable for almost any diving depth that can be reached, as they are particularly waterproof and pressure-resistant.

Incabloc

Is the most commonly used shock protection for wristwatches today.

calendar clock

A watch containing at least one date display. Calendar clocks are often referred to as astronomical clocks. In addition to the date, they also show the week, month and year. You are very valuable.

complication

This is a technical term when a watch has additional mechanisms apart from the time display, eg striking mechanism, alarm mechanism, chronograph and calendar. Such mechanical watches are manufactured by a few specialists and are correspondingly expensive.

Crown

This is the dial for setting the hands of a clock and/or correcting the date display. In water-resistant watches, the crown can be screwed onto the case for protection. The crown is usually fluted for better handling. There are different types of crowns, e.g. aviator crowns, onion crowns, etc.

jewels

These stones are used to reduce friction in a movement. In most cases, artificially drawn rubies are used.

LED display

"Light Emitting Diode" means something like light-emitting diode. It is the technical description for the electro-optical display.

leather strap

Most wristwatches are factory fitted with leather straps. A variety of designs and colors are distinguished, eg alligator/crocodile, ostrich, lizard, shark, undulate ray, buffalo and beef. It is important that the exotic leather used was purchased in accordance with the "Washington Convention on the Protection of Species". These tapes are therefore equipped with a "species protection flag". The leather surface comes in smooth, grained and embossed versions. When it comes to clasps, a distinction is made between the very commonly used pin clasp and the folding clasp. In most cases, the color of the clasp depends on the color of the case (e.g. silver or gold).

bezel

This is the bezel on a watch that is visible from above. The bezel is part of the watch case in the form of a metal or plastic ring. It can be fixed or rotating (e.g. rotating bezel on a diver's watch). Sometimes lunettes are decorated, e.g. fluted. It is often suitable for displaying certain values, e.g. the cardinal direction, second time zone, speedometer, etc.

manufacture

A watch manufacturer can only call itself a manufactory if it makes at least one β€œEbauche”, i.e. a raw movement, itself.

solid bracelet (steel bracelet)

These are watch straps made of metal. On request, many manufacturers offer these bracelets in stainless steel, titanium and aluminum. With stainless steel straps, a distinction is made between watch straps made of folded or solid individual links. Solid stainless steel bands are very robust, of higher quality and more expensive. Gold-colored, gold-plated and bicolor versions are available for the surfaces. Depending on the case coating, black-coated straps are also available. Titanium straps are very light, low-allergenic and very strong. They are usually in a higher price category. The lug width of the watch determines the strap width (e.g. 18 mm, 20 mm, 22 mm).

mechanical watch

These are clocks that are powered by a mainspring. The oscillating system runs purely mechanically and not on batteries, as is the case with quartz watches. The watch can be wound manually or automatically.

moon phase

It shows the various manifestations of the moon during a lunar month as an image and/or number (moon age 1-29.5 days). This is often done with a dark blue disc that is rotated by the watch's hand train beneath the dial. The waxing or waning moon is shown through a semicircular section.

nautical clock

Ship chronometers are often referred to as nautical clocks. These clocks are used to determine degrees of longitude, but also to check nautical charts. They have a separate second hand. Today it is usually understood as wristwatches for maritime purposes. They are often chronographs with additional functions, such as tides or tide clocks, diving watches with or without underwater alarm clock (alarm function), watches with longitude scales or regatta timers. Compass functions are also often integrated. These watches are all water resistant to 100 meters or more. Most of today's nautical watches are suitable for all types of water sports. The watch enthusiast can decide for himself which functional areas he attaches particular importance to.

nickel free

To avoid nickel allergies, the Euro 1811 standard has been in place since 2000. This standard defines and regulates the release of nickel. This is a measure of the release of nickel to the skin. By choosing quality steel for the case or band, the residual nickel content is reduced to less than 0.2%.

zero count alarm

This is a stopwatch running backwards. When the target time (0 minutes, 0 seconds) is reached, the watch will beep.

zero position

Resetting the hands of a chronograph after the end of the time measurement is described as resetting.

orientation pointer

This is a 24 hour hand shaped as a directional arrow to indicate the direction of the compass.

circuit board

A metal plate (base plate) that carries bridges, cocks and other components of a clockwork. In addition to threaded holes for screws, there are also holes for the gear train bearings in the plate.

pulsometer scale

With the pulsometer scale you can read the pulse beat per minute directly after 15 pulse beats have been stopped.

quartz watch

Unlike mechanical watches, quartz watches are battery operated. A "synthetic quartz" is excited with an electronic AC voltage and divided down to a constant oscillation of 1 Hz. By adhering to this particularly precise frequency, quartz watches are very accurate.

rally watch

These are sporty timepieces that have something to do with the character of rallies, racing or Formula 1. There are both mechanical and quartz controlled rally watches. In most cases, such watches are not only designed as timepieces but also as chronographs, ie with a stopwatch function. The cases are robust and often equipped with a rotating bezel and tachymeter scale.
Rally watches can also often be found at many automobile manufacturers. The variety, as well as the price range, is hard to overlook. So-called on-board clocks are a special form of rally watch. These clocks are usually offered as a combination set, for example as an on-board stop watch and an on-board time clock attached to a metal plate. These on-board clocks are intended for installation in rally or vintage vehicles.

rattrapante

This is a chronograph with a double hand, which is usually placed in the center. With its help, intermediate times can be stopped without having to stop the actual second hand of the chronograph. In addition to the two pushers of the chronograph, a third pusher is attached to the case.

slide rule scale

It works according to the principle of logarithmic scale division. You can use it to multiply and divide, for example when calculating fuel consumption.

regulation

These are work steps in order to achieve the highest possible rate accuracy of a watch.

repetition strike mechanism

A striking mechanism with the technical possibility of repetition, ie repetition of the last striking of the hour by the striking mechanism.

rotor

This is found in self-winding watches. It rotates by moving in both directions and thus tensions the tension spring.

sapphire crystal

Valuable, artificially manufactured glass with the highest hardness and scratch resistance.

satin finish

Crosswise, applied dash cut on watch cases and watch straps.

striking mechanism clock

A percussion watch is a watch with at least two movements. A going train and a separate striking train. The latter is responsible for the acoustic indication of time by hitting a bell or sound spiral.

trailing pointer

The trailing pointer is another term for the rattrapante. It is the second hand on the seconds shaft.

silicone bracelet

Silicone occupies a position between inorganic and organic compounds. In this respect, you have a unique range of properties that no other plastic can match. Such bracelets are therefore not only robust, water and weather resistant, they are also anti-allergic. Silicone bracelets are also particularly suitable for diving watches.

skeletonization

In order to give a watch a filigree look, for example, dials are cut out in such a way that an artistic ornament becomes visible. This is often found in chronographs.

solar watch

Solar cells are powered by solar energy. These are, for example, invisibly attached under a transparent dial and feed the quartz movement.

spiral spring

This is a spirally wound, flat wire which, together with the balance wheel, forms the oscillating system of a mechanical watch.

stop second

Pulling out the winding crown stops the watch. So it can be set to the second.

shockproof

Watches that are designated as shockproof must meet the requirements of DIN 8308. For example, they have to endure a free, vertical fall from a height of 1 m.

tachymeter scale

The tachymeter scale is a watch scale that can be used to read the average speed traveled over a measuring distance of 1 km. The measurement is made by timing the transit time between two measurement points using a chronograph.

diving watch

These are watches that are usually water-resistant and pressure-resistant to at least 200 m (200 bar pressure). In addition, they have a particularly good readability of time and dive time from a distance of 25 cm. In most cases, they are equipped with a unidirectional rotating bezel. It is used to determine the remaining dive time. Quality diving watches are tested according to the test criteria of DIN 8306. Diving watches are also available as chronographs. Pushers and crown can be screwed here.

titanium case

The titanium case is a very light, hard, non-magnetic metal alloy. The advantage of this overall very high quality material is a comfortable fit. In addition, titanium does not trigger any allergic reactions.

tourbillon

The tourbillon serves to avoid center of gravity errors in the oscillating system of a mechanical watch. It was invented by Brequet. With the tourbillon (whirlwind), the complete oscillation and escapement system is arranged in a light β€œcage”. This compensates for errors in rate accuracy caused by the influence of gravity.

unrest

This is a rate-regulating part of a mechanical watch. In conjunction with the spiral spring, it forms the oscillating system. The active length of the hairspring and the moment of inertia of the balance wheel determine its period of oscillation.

vacuum safe

The pressure resistance of a waterproof watch always refers to the external pressure. Vacuum security is about reduced external pressures, eg at high altitude. This is particularly important for glass attachment.

waterproofness

A watch that is described as waterproof should meet the requirements of the DIN 8310 standard in its original condition.

3 bar β‰ˆ 3 atm (β‰ˆ 30 m)
The watch can withstand a pressure of 3 bar (corresponds to 30 m water column or approx. 3 atmospheres) for a limited time

5 bar β‰ˆ 5 atm (β‰ˆ 50 m)
The watch has been tested for water resistance up to 5 bar, which corresponds to the pressure of an assumed water column of 50 meters. This makes it suitable for everyday use, e.g. B. Bathing, showering or washing hands.

10 bar β‰ˆ 10 atm (β‰ˆ 100 m)
The watch has been tested for water resistance up to 10 bar, which corresponds to the pressure of an assumed water column of 100 meters. This makes it suitable for e.g. B. frequent swimming or snorkeling.

20 bar β‰ˆ 20 atm (β‰ˆ 200 m)
The watch has been tested for water resistance up to 20 bar, which corresponds to the pressure of an assumed water column of 200 meters. Watches in this group are suitable, for example, for snorkeling and scuba-free diving at shallow depths.

alarm clock

This is a watch with an additional mechanism that generates an alarm sound controlled by the movement at a settable time. Such clocks are available both mechanically and quartz-controlled.

world clock

A watch that uses subdials or a dial to simultaneously display the time for different time zones.

Day of the week display

This is an additional display of the day of the week, always in conjunction with the date display.

yacht timer

Yachtimers are sports watches with various features that are indispensable for sailing enthusiasts, such as an integrated yacht countdown that can be set to a period of up to 10 minutes. A beep provides information about the remaining time before the start of the race.

movement

The pointer train is used to drive the pointers directly. It is powered by the walking gear. It usually consists of three wheels - minute wheel, hour wheel and change wheel.

time zones

There are a total of 24 time zones, each comprising 15 lines of longitude and starting at the Prime Meridian.

dial

The dial is often referred to as the β€œface” of the watch. It has a significant impact on the appearance and design of a watch. They are always flat discs, which are now made from almost all solid materials.

tension spring

Long, elastic and spirally wound strip made of special steel. It is housed rolled up in the spring barrel. The mainspring is the "energy store" of a mechanical watch.

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